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Red Cloud - 1822-1909 - Oglala Sioux leader. - Move mouse pointer over name to see comment.
Red Cloud


Geronimo - 1829-1909 - Apache leader. - Move mouse pointer over name to see comment.


Sitting Bull - 1834-1890 - Hunkpapa Sioux leader. - Move mouse pointer over name to see comment.
Sitting Bull


Chief Joseph - Move mouse pointer over name to see quote.
Chief Joseph


Favorite Natives


Favorite Native Music


Woods to left of smokeSmokin'!Woods to right of smoke
Not secure as of 2019-08-17. - Learn about the Nebraska Indian Affairs office.

Each of the Pow Wow info blocks below are displayed for approximately 45 days prior and throughout the event. Some larger events with websites are displayed much earlier to help with vacation planning (as much as 240 days). Each event is outlined in a box. Some events have two different colored border lines. The color of the outermost border indicates whether there is a web address for the event. The box color will be either Gold or Red. Gold is for events that have a web site. Red indicates there is no web site, so you cannot click the details to get more information. For those that do, the text and link is in lilac color, with the Gold border; the others are in light blue, with a Red border.  If the event has two border lines, the inner box line color provides more information. An additional green dashed border inside indicates the event has been canceled. An event may also be postponed. In this case, the color is a solid green color. It may be postponed for the year, or it may be rescheduled for a later date in the same year.  Occasionally, an event comes to an end permanently, although we may not have the information that informs us that is the case. For each year, each event has to be confirmed to ensure the dates are correct. If we cannot locate information that confirms an event is still going on three years in a row, there is a good change the event has ended permanently but we do not know about its demise. In that case, the inner box color will be Indian Red. You should take this into consideration if you are planning to attend one of these events.




2020 Ateyapi Wacipi: Honoring the Youth
(2nd Annual ???)
(Second Saturday of March)
Unconfirmed (but based on
Second Saturday of March rule):

March 14, 2020
(in 25 days)

Rapid City Central High School
533 Mt. Rushmore Rd
Rapid City, SD 57701

(Google Maps and Satellite maps logo)
Rural American Initiatives/Whitney Rencountre at 605-391-2034

2020 South Dakota University Annual Wacipi
(2nd Annual ???)
(Fourth Saturday of March)
Unconfirmed (but based on
Fourth Saturday of March rule):

March 28, 2020
(in 39 days)

SDSU Campus University Student Union, Volstorff Ballroom,
110 Student Union Land
Brookings, SD 57007

(Google Maps and Satellite maps logo)
Morgan Catlett-Ausborn at 605-688-5263
SDSU American Indian Education & Cultural Center at 605-688-6416


Pawnee War of 1859

The problem started near the end of June when a half dozen Pawnee robbed a settler that lived north of the community known as Fontenelle.  A dozen settlers joined to retaliate but failing to locate the raiding natives, returned to Fontenelle.  Two days later, several settlers from West Point and Dewitt arrived after fleeing their homes.  They reported that the Pawnee were traveling up the Elkhorn River, robbing anyone along he way.

The twelve vigilantes quickly turned into 30 as they headed out in search of the raiding party.  They were able to entice a dozen of the Pawnee to raid a log cabin with the intent to trap them in an ambush.  Only two were killed and one injured, the rest escaping but now knowing they could not continue without a battle.

The vigilante party started to return the wounded Pawnee to Fontenelle but he was killed while attempting to escape along the way.   Upon arrival back at Fontenelle, the new territorial governor Black was informed of the native problem.  He issued orders to the militia to be ready to move while others gathered in readiness.  When 200 gathered at Fontenelle, they planned to cross the Elkhorn River, follow the natives and attack on sight.

After a week of tracking, the militia came across the Indian lodge of "Jim Dick," an under chief of the Omahas.  He reported that the Pawnee were now joined by the Ponca and the Omaha and that they now numbered at least 5,000.  Additionally, that they were camped just seven or eight miles further on.  For the first time, this militia of 200 had to contemplate the possibility of being outnumbered, their chapter in history to soon be written in final form.

The threat of an uprising reversing all the progress the settlers had accomplished helped the decision to continue.  The group camped after traveling a couple miles closer, the idea to start out at 3 o'clock in the morning in order to sneak up on the Indian camp at daybreak.

As planned, the militia arrived at the camp undiscovered but only for a short period at which time the natives attempted an escape that failed in the end.  An under chief of the Pawnee gathered the scattered together to discuss terms of surrender and reconciliation.  After hours of discussion, the initial (seven) raiding Pawnee were turned over.  The militia stayed in the native camp for the night and started their return the next day.

Upon reaching an elevated clearing, the militia was surprised to find that the natives had not remained at the camp where the previous day's pow-wow had been held but instead had circled around to the front and now stood in the path of the returning militia.  The camp appeared to be in a state of commotion and very agitated.

Expecting the possibility of an attack, the militia continued in the general direction of the Indian camp with the prisoners tied to the wagons.  At the time, they passed close to the Indian camp, one of the Indians stabbed himself, falling to the ground, appearing to be mortally wounded.  The commotion caused by attempting to attend to his wounds, distracted the militia enough that a squaw from the camp was able to untie the prisoners.  The guards pursued while the soldiers readied themselves on a hill for a full blown battle.  The guards returned reporting that they had killed or wounded all that had escaped, except one who had been recaptured.  In the excitement, one Omahan had been wounded and a pony belonging to them had been killed.

The Omaha nation was now ready for war.   Successfully, a conference was called where the Omaha nation repeatedly voiced their desires for war and retribution.  Finally their desires were met by leaving medicine for the wounded and paying for the pony.

The militia continued their return traveling up Beaver Creek to where it joined the Loup Fork, then continued on to Genoa, then a Mormon settlement, continuing to Columbus where the command was disbanded.

The war was the major topic of discussion in Omaha during the rest of the summer of 1859, the only other topic getting as much attention being the discovery of gold to the west.  It turned out to be the last major uprising.  A couple of years later, in 1861, Kansas was admitted to the union.   In 1867 Nebraska followed suit.  The natives were no longer in control.  The Redskin would never regain ownership of these lands except in small parcels called reservations.

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